Founded in late 1989, the Center for the Study of Democracy (CSD) is a public policy institute fostering the reform process in Europe through impact on policy and civil society. CSD’s mission is “building bridges between scholars and policy-makers” and as an independent, interdisciplinary think tank it combines a broad range of capacities. Building bridges is the old-fashioned way of bringing together social actors and cementing new alliances. Born as a think-tank, the Center for the Study of Democracy has evolved into policy development through dialogue and partnership.

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Climate Action 

Following the Bulgaria’s entry into the European Union in 2007, CSD has specialised also in energy governance and regional energy security through policy research and advocacy for improving national and European energy policies. Of key concern are the Energy Security Risks and Energy Security Agenda in Southeast Europe. Overcoming the energy security risks of Bulgaria and South-eastern Europe including widespread energy poverty, low energy efficiency and dependence on one supplier of oil and gas remains a distant perspective. The diversification of the natural gas supply has stalled and the liberalization of cross-border gas trading is yet to be unlocked.

CSD has also been examining how the European Green Deal will play out in Bulgaria.

Featured Initiatives

Energy and Climate Security Risk Index (ECSRI)

 The Index allows policy-makers and experts to fully reflect on a wide spectrum of risks associated with the high reliance on fossil fuels, as well as the risk mitigation potential of decarbonisation policies. The ECSRI has four pillars, reflecting the four dimensions of energy security risks: geopolitical, affordability, reliability, and sustainability. The Index covers 39 individual risk indicators, based on thousands of data points. The pilot version covers Greece, Bulgaria and Romania as the first threatened to get Russian gas supplies cuts but the index is being expanded it to cover also Italy, Germany and an EU average.

Green Energy Governance

Energy Policy and energy security

Featured Events


The European Green Deal in Bulgaria: Policy Options and Possible Solutions, 28 May 2020

Energy Security Risks and Energy Security Agenda in Southeast Europe, 26 Nov 2018

Featured Publications

Policy Brief No. 92: Lost in transition: Bulgaria and the European Green Deal, 19 May 2020